Samarth-NMDP, the first programme to apply a ‘making markets work for the poor’ approach in Nepal, is addressing the causes, rather than just the symptoms, of this dysfunctional disease management system. Instead of taking a direct role in supplying Trichoderma, Samarth is unlocking the potential for two national Trichoderma importers, Crop Pro Tech (CPT) and Everest Agro Tech (EAT), to improve the supply of trichoderma to smallholder farmers. Taking a ‘market systems’ lens, the programme asks why these players currently lack the incentives and capacity to drive innovation – which will continue to generate better results for the poor long after Samarth-NMDP comes to an end.